Tuesday, May 17, 2022

Python 3.9.13 is now available

 

This is the thirteenth maintenance release of Python 3.9. Get it here:
Python 3.9.13

According to the release calendar specified in PEP 596, Python 3.9.13 is the final regular maintenance release. Starting now, the 3.9 branch will only accept security fixes and releases of those will be made in source-only form until October 2025.

This is a milestone moment for me as it means that now both of my release series are security-only. My work as release manager enters its final stage. I’m not crying, you’re crying! :smiling_face_with_tear:

Compared to the 3.8 series, this last regular bugfix release is still pretty active at 166 commits since 3.9.12. In comparison, version 3.8.10, the final regular bugfix release of Python 3.8, included only 92 commits. However, it’s likely that it was 3.8 that was special here with the governance changes occupying core developers’ minds. For reference, version 3.7.8, the final regular bugfix release of Python 3.7, included 187 commits.

In any case, 166 commits is quite a few changes, some of which being pretty important fixes. Take a look at the change log for details.

Major new features of the 3.9 series, compared to 3.8

Some of the new major new features and changes in Python 3.9 are:

  • PEP 573, Module State Access from C Extension Methods
  • PEP 584, Union Operators in dict
  • PEP 585, Type Hinting Generics In Standard Collections
  • PEP 593, Flexible function and variable annotations
  • PEP 602, Python adopts a stable annual release cadence
  • PEP 614, Relaxing Grammar Restrictions On Decorators
  • PEP 615, Support for the IANA Time Zone Database in the Standard Library
  • PEP 616, String methods to remove prefixes and suffixes
  • PEP 617, New PEG parser for CPython
  • BPO 38379, garbage collection does not block on resurrected objects;
  • BPO 38692, os.pidfd_open added that allows process management without races and signals;
  • BPO 39926, Unicode support updated to version 13.0.0;
  • BPO 1635741, when Python is initialized multiple times in the same process, it does not leak memory anymore;
  • A number of Python builtins (range, tuple, set, frozenset, list, dict) are now sped up using PEP 590 vectorcall;
  • A number of Python modules (_abc, audioop, _bz2, _codecs, _contextvars, _crypt, _functools, _json, _locale, operator, resource, time, _weakref) now use multiphase initialization as defined by PEP 489;
  • A number of standard library modules (audioop, ast, grp, _hashlib, pwd, _posixsubprocess, random, select, struct, termios, zlib) are now using the stable ABI defined by PEP 384.

You can find a more comprehensive list in this release’s “What’s New” document.

We hope you enjoy Python 3.9!

Thanks to all of the many volunteers who help make Python Development and these releases possible! Please consider supporting our efforts by volunteering yourself or through organization contributions to the Python Software Foundation.

Your friendly release team,
Ned Deily @nad
Steve Dower @steve.dower
Łukasz Langa @ambv

Saturday, May 7, 2022

Python 3.11.0b1 is now available

We did it, team! After quite a bumpy release process and a bunch of last-time fixes, we have reached beta 1 and feature freeze. What a ride eh? You can get the shiny new release artefacts from here:

https://www.python.org/downloads/release/python-3110b1/

This is a beta preview of Python 3.11

Python 3.11 is still in development. 3.11.0b1 is the first of four planned beta release previews. Beta release previews are intended to give the wider community the opportunity to test new features and bug fixes and to prepare their projects to support the new feature release.

We strongly encourage maintainers of third-party Python projects to test with 3.11 during the beta phase and report issues found to the Python bug tracker as soon as possible. While the release is planned to be feature complete entering the beta phase, it is possible that features may be modified or, in rare cases, deleted up until the start of the release candidate phase (Monday, 2021-08-02). Our goal is have no ABI changes after beta 4 and as few code changes as possible after 3.11.0rc1, the first release candidate. To achieve that, it will be extremely important to get as much exposure for 3.11 as possible during the beta phase.

Please keep in mind that this is a preview release and its use is not recommended for production environments.

Major new features of the 3.11 series, compared to 3.10

Among the new major new features and changes so far:

  • PEP 657 – Include Fine-Grained Error Locations in Tracebacks
  • PEP 654 –  Exception Groups and except*
  • PEP 673 –   Self Type
  • PEP 646 –  Variadic Generics
  • PEP 680– tomllib: Support for Parsing TOML in the Standard Library
  • PEP 675– Arbitrary Literal String Type
  • PEP 655– Marking individual TypedDict items as required or potentially-missing
  • bpo-46752– Introduce task groups to asyncio
  • The Faster Cpython Project is already yielding some exciting results. Python 3.11 is up to 10-60% faster than Python 3.10. On average, we measured a 1.22x speedup on the standard benchmark suite. See Faster CPython for details.
  • (Hey, fellow core developer, if a feature you find important is missing from this list, let Pablo know.)

The next pre-release of Python 3.11 will be 3.11.0b2, currently scheduled for Monday, 2022-05-30.

More resources

And now for something completely different

The holographic principle is a tenet of string theories and a supposed property of quantum gravity that states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a lower-dimensional boundary to the region—such as a light-like boundary like a gravitational horizon. First proposed by Gerard 't Hooft, it was given a precise string-theory interpretation by Leonard Susskind, who combined his ideas with previous ones of 't Hooft and Charles Thorn.[ Leonard Susskind said, “The three-dimensional world of ordinary experience––the universe filled with galaxies, stars, planets, houses, boulders, and people––is a hologram, an image of reality cited on a distant two-dimensional (2D) surface." As pointed out by Raphael Bousso, Thorn observed in 1978 that string theory admits a lower-dimensional description in which gravity emerges from it in what would now be called a holographic way.

The holographic principle was inspired by black hole thermodynamics, which conjectures that the maximal entropy in any region scales with the radius squared, and not cubed as might be expected. In the case of a black hole, the insight was that the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the hole might be entirely contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. The holographic principle resolves the black hole information paradox within the framework of string theory. However, there exist classical solutions to the Einstein equations that allow values of the entropy larger than those allowed by an area law, hence in principle larger than those of a black hole. These are the so-called “Wheeler’s bags of gold”. The existence of such solutions conflicts with the holographic interpretation, and their effects in a quantum theory of gravity including the holographic principle are not full

We hope you enjoy the new releases!

Thanks to all of the many volunteers who help make Python Development and these releases possible! Please consider supporting our efforts by volunteering yourself or through organization contributions to the Python Software Foundation.

Wednesday, April 6, 2022

The last Python 3.11 alpha (3.11.0a7) is available

Brrrrr… do you feel that? That’s the chill of beta freeze coming closer. Meanwhile, your friendly CPython release team doesn’t rest and we have prepared a shiny new release for you: Python 3.11.0a7.

https://www.python.org/downloads/release/python-3110a7/

Major new features of the 3.11 series, compared to 3.10

Among the new major new features and changes so far:

  • PEP 657 – Include Fine-Grained Error Locations in Tracebacks
  • PEP 654 –  Exception Groups and except*
  • PEP 673 –   Self Type
  • PEP 646 –  Variadic Generics
  • PEP 680– tomllib: Support for Parsing TOML in the Standard Library
  • PEP 675– Arbitrary Literal String Type
  • PEP 655– Marking individual TypedDict items as required or potentially-missing
  • bpo-46752– Introduce task groups to asyncio
  • The Faster Cpython Project is already yielding some exciting results: this version of CPython 3.11 is ~19% faster on the geometric mean of the performance benchmarks, compared to 3.10.0.
  • (Hey, fellow core developer, if a feature you find important is missing from this list, let Pablo know.)

The next pre-release of Python 3.11 will be 3.11.0b1, currently scheduled for Friday, 2022-05-06.

More resources

And now for something completely different

In mathematics, the Dirac delta distribution (δ distribution) is a generalized function or distribution over the real numbers, whose value is zero everywhere except at zero, and whose integral over the entire real line is equal to one. The current understanding of the impulse is as a linear functional that maps every continuous function to its value at zero. The delta function was introduced by physicist Paul Dirac as a tool for the normalization of state vectors. It also has uses in probability theory and signal processing. Its validity was disputed until Laurent Schwartz developed the theory of distributions where it is defined as a linear form acting on functions. 

Defining this distribution as a “function” as many physicist do is known to be one of the easier ways to annoy mathematicians :)

We hope you enjoy the new releases!

Thanks to all of the many volunteers who help make Python Development and these releases possible! Please consider supporting our efforts by volunteering yourself or through organization contributions to the Python Software Foundation.

Thursday, March 24, 2022

Python 3.10.4 and 3.9.12 are now available out of schedule

Did anybody say cursed releases? Well, it turns out that 3.10.3 and 3.9.11 both shipped a regression which caused those versions not to build on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. While this 11-year-old version is now out of maintenance support, it’s still used in production workloads. Some of those rely on Python 3.9 and/or 3.10. In particular, our own manylinux2010 image used to build widely compatible Linux wheels is based on CentOS 6. (Don’t worry, we do have newer manylinux* variants, see PEP 599 and PEP 600 for details.)

Due to the out-of-schedule release, the respective versions released today contain a very limited set of changes. Python 3.9.12 only contains 12 other bug fixes on top of 3.9.11. Python 3.10.4 only contains 10 other bug fixes on top of 3.10.3.

Get 3.10.4 here: Python Release Python 3.10.4 | Python.org
Get 3.9.12 here: Python Release Python 3.9.12 | Python.org

Hopefully, the third time’s a charm and we’ll return no sooner than May with the regularly scheduled bug fix releases of 3.9 and 3.10.

We hope you enjoy the new releases

Your friendly release team,
Łukasz Langa @ambv
Pablo Galindo Salgado @pablogsal
Ned Deily @nad
Steve Dower @steve.dower

Wednesday, March 16, 2022

Python 3.10.3, 3.9.11, 3.8.13, and 3.7.13 are now available with security content

Welcome again to the exciting world of releasing new Python versions!

Last time around I was complaining about cursed releases. This time around I could complain about security content galore and how one of them ruined my ingenious idea to release Python on Pi Day and call it Py Day. Well, you can’t have everything in life. Or at least not everything at once.

And yet it seems this time around we’ve got a lot of security fixes all at once. Just look at this list:

  • 15 (sic!) CVEs: libexpat upgraded from 2.4.1 to 2.4.7 (BPO-46794, BPO-46932, BPO-46811, BPO-46784, BPO-46400)
  • CVE-2022-0778: OpenSSL upgraded from 1.1.1l to 1.1.1n in macOS and Windows installers (BPO-47024)
  • CVE-2016-3189, CVE-2019-12900: bzip2 upgraded from 1.0.6 to 1.0.8 in Windows installers (BPO-44549)
  • CVE-2022-26488: Windows installer now ensures the correct path is being repaired when “Add to PATH” is used (BPO-46948)
  • CVE-2021-28363: bundled pip upgraded from 21.2.4 to 22.0.4 (BPO-46985)
  • authorization bypass fixed in urllib.request (BPO-46756)
  • REDoS avoided in importlib.metadata (BPO-46474)
  • SQLite upgraded from 3.36.0 to 3.37.2 in macOS and Windows installers (BPO-45925)

Python 3.10.3

Get it here: https://www.python.org/downloads/release/python-3103/

Python 3.10.3 is the third maintenance release of the newest version of the Python programming language, which contains many new features and optimizations. We recommend it over the other releases listed below.

This is a large bugfix release with 220 commits since 3.10.2. Just look at the change log!

The next maintenance release of Python 3.10 is planned for early June.

Python 3.9.11

Get it here: https://www.python.org/downloads/release/python-3911/

This is the penultimate planned full bugfix release of Python 3.9. In mid-May, we’ll be releasing the last one, after which the 3.9 series will enter its security-only fixes period. More details in PEP 596.

Python 3.9 is the first Python version since 2.7 to have a regular bugfix release larger than “.10”. It’s also still a significant release at 163 commits since 3.9.10. That’s in fact 30+ commits more than between 3.9.9 and 3.9.10. The change log isn’t as long as the 3.10.3 one but it’s still pretty extensive!

As a reminder, on macOS, the default installer is now the new universal2 variant. It’s compatible with Mac OS X 10.9 and newer, including macOS 11 Big Sur and macOS 12 Monterey. Python installed with this variant will work natively on Apple Silicon processors.

Python 3.8.13

Get it here: https://www.python.org/downloads/release/python-3813/

Changes here are almost exclusively security-only as the life cycle of Python versions prescribes. You might have noticed there is a small number of regular bug fixes nonetheless. This is because without those we wouldn’t be able to continue running the full test suite for the 3.8 branch. This in turn could hide regressions in future security fixes.

Python 3.7.13

Get it here: https://www.python.org/downloads/release/python-3713/

Just like 3.8, Python 3.7 is in its security-only fixes period. In turn, the changes in 3.7.13 look almost identical to the ones in 3.8.13.

Python 3.7 will continue to receive source-only releases until June 2023.

We hope you enjoy the new releases

Your friendly release team,
Łukasz Langa @ambv
Pablo Galindo Salgado @pablogsal
Ned Deily @nad
Steve Dower @steve.dower

Monday, March 7, 2022

Python 3.11.0a6 is available

There are no easy releases these days! :sweat: After a week of delay due to several release blockers, buildbot problems and pandemic-related difficulties here is 3.11.0a6 for you to test.

https://www.python.org/downloads/release/python-3110a6/

Major new features of the 3.11 series, compared to 3.10

Among the new major new features and changes so far:

  • PEP 657 – Include Fine-Grained Error Locations in Tracebacks
  • PEP 654 –  Exception Groups and except*
  • PEP 673 –   Self Type
  • PEP 646 –  Variadic Generics
  • The Faster Cpython Project is already yielding some exciting results: this version of CPython 3.11 is ~19% faster on the geometric mean of the performance benchmarks, compared to 3.10.0.
  • (Hey, fellow core developer, if a feature you find important is missing from this list, let Pablo know.)

The next pre-release of Python 3.11 will be 3.11.0a7, currently scheduled for Tuesday, 2022-04-05.

More resources

And now for something completely different

In astrophysics and nuclear physics, nuclear pasta is a theoretical type of degenerate matter that is postulated to exist within the crusts of neutron stars. If it does in fact exist, nuclear pasta is the strongest material in the universe. Between the surface of a neutron star and the quark-gluon plasma at the core, at matter densities of 1014 g/cm3, nuclear attraction and Coulomb repulsion forces are of similar magnitude. The competition between the forces leads to the formation of a variety of complex structures assembled from neutrons and protons. Astrophysicists call these types of structures nuclear pasta because the geometry of the structures resembles various types of pasta.

There are several phases of evolution (I swear these names are real), including the gnocchi phase, the spaghetti phase, the lasagna phase, the bucatini phase and the Swiss cheese phase.

We hope you enjoy the new releases!

Thanks to all of the many volunteers who help make Python Development and these releases possible! Please consider supporting our efforts by volunteering yourself or through organization contributions to the Python Software Foundation.

Thursday, February 3, 2022

Python 3.11.0a5 is available

We needed to tame some angry buildbots, but after a small fight, we won with just some scratches! Here you have a shiny new alpha release: Python 3.11.0a5.


Major new features of the 3.11 series, compared to 3.10

Among the new major new features and changes so far:

  • PEP 657 – Include Fine-Grained Error Locations in Tracebacks
  • PEP 654 –  Exception Groups and except*
  • PEP 673 –   Self Type
  • PEP 646 –  Variadic Generics
  • The Faster Cpython Project is already yielding some exciting results: this version of CPython 3.11 is ~19% faster on the geometric mean of the performance benchmarks, compared to 3.10.0.
  • (Hey, fellow core developer, if a feature you find important is missing from this list, let Pablo know.)

The next pre-release of Python 3.11 will be 3.11.0a6, currently scheduled for Monday, 2022-02-28.

More resources

And now for something completely different

In physics, the Poynting vector (Umov-Poynting vector) represents the directional energy flux (the energy transfer per unit area per unit time) or power flow of an electromagnetic field.  It is named after its discoverer John Henry Poynting who first derived it in 1884. Oliver Heaviside also discovered it independently in the more general form that recognises the freedom of adding the curl of an arbitrary vector field to the definition. The Poynting vector is used throughout electromagnetics in conjunction with Poynting's theorem, the continuity equation expressing conservation of electromagnetic energy, to calculate the power flow in electromagnetic fields.

We hope you enjoy the new releases!

Thanks to all of the many volunteers who help make Python Development and these releases possible! Please consider supporting our efforts by volunteering yourself or through organization contributions to the Python Software Foundation.